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Postuar nga NS-6 datė 16 Qershor 2005 - 00:29:

medical sciences

ketu mund te shkruani cdo lloj lajmi mjeksie ose kuriozitet ne lidhje me te qe mund te jete ne anglisht (duke qene se ajo eshte gjuha internacionale) dhe mund ta keni lexuar ne ndonje vend ose ne ndonje liber etj...kjo behet per disa persona qe kane probleme ne kuptimin e gjuhes shqipe sic jane darke...shpresoj mos te kete kritika per kete gje

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 20 Qershor 2005 - 11:28:

adenosine and the sleep

Cod. A20062005

darke read this :
When cells in a certain part of the brain become overworked, a compound in the brain kicks in, telling them to shut down. This causes people to become drowsy and fall asleep. Alter that natural process by adding coffee or tea, and the brain compound - called adenosine - is blocked, and people stay awake.

Prolonged increased neural activity in the brain's arousal centers triggers the release of adenosine, which in turn slows down neural activity in the arousal center areas. Because the arousal centers control activity throughout the entire brain, the process expands outward and causes neural activity to slow down everywhere in the brain

"We knew that coffee kept us awake," Dr. Greene( professor of psychiatry and senior author of the study in the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center)said. "Now we know why: Coffee and tea are blocking the link between the prolonged neural activity of waking and increased levels of adenosine in cells, which is why they prevent us from getting drowsy."

Past studies by Dr. Greene and his colleagues have shown that adenosine may act as a "fatigue factor." When adenosine levels increase in the arousal centers -- as happens with prolonged waking -- mammals tend to fall asleep. But what hasn't been known before is what triggers the release of adenosine to induce sleep.

these findings may be usefull in the future treatment of insomnia and other sleep disorders...

this was a briefing of a longer article published in internet...if anyone is interested for the full article here's the link:

Postuar nga darke datė 20 Qershor 2005 - 12:43:

Re: adenosine and the sleep

Oh, this is very interesting. You talk about a self conciensce of our brain-body. It works by itself in spite of we do or don’t want it. But in the case of imsonmia, why the brain decide not to sleep? Is a misfunction? All around the human brain is amazing…! The most amazing is (well, I’m not sure, I just have heard about it) is that our body segregates those sustances that you were talking and also our brain has the receptors for those substances! So it’s like if we were waiting or ready for those substances. This is the genetic conciousness I mentioned before.
I saw on TV some time ago a scientific talking about the danger of LSD, it is a kind of drug? but this man said that it could be that after a year that you try this substance you can have alucinations, like squizofrenical alucinations or even you could become squizofrenic. But in another hand, he said that this substance is used for treating sicknesses as despression. Our body can segregates this substance in a natural way?
There is a biggggggg mistery in our brain. How could you distinguish an alucination or a real vision? An alucination is because our brain wants to see it?

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 20 Qershor 2005 - 17:56:

Cod. B20062005

Hallucination is a situation where the brain elaborates in a wrong way the "input" informations.So the output is a wrong vision of what we see. It is not a simple situation because other brain system affect this symptom. Normally it is produced in some particular types of situations: u mentioned schizophrenic hallucination. Vascular problems in brain may give the same effect(hypotension or variations in ions concentrations in blood. Even variations in hormonal concentration may give this effect) i don't know the way they are produced but I'll try to find it out!!!
Normally in the brain there exist some types of maps that help to understand the world around us in 3D or even 4D(considering the time: the circadian cycle,the day-night altering). This is the reason why we can still find the way in a place even when we close the eyes.or we can recognise an object just by touching it.These maps can change through the life according to the experience,usage etc...
i'll try to find out more information and write it here...

p.s sorry for my english but i haven't been practising it for 4 years.i have forgotten a lot of terms

Postuar nga darke datė 21 Qershor 2005 - 12:26:

Po citoj ato qė tha NS-6
normally in the brain there exist some types of maps that help to understand the world around us in 3D or even 4D(considering the time: the circadian cycle,the day-night altering).this is the reason why we can still find the way in a place even when we close the eyes.or we can recognise an object just by touching it...these maps can change through the life according to the experience,usage etc...
i'll try to find out more information and write it here...

You touch my weak fibres here. This theme, mental maps for orientation in a city, is what made me to start with my thesis:p I was yesterday very impressed that you mentioned it. I have thousand questions about this matter and maybe you can help me or give me some traces to follow up. Some years ago, an important magazine of Architecture in Spain (“Quaderns” – concretely nŗ 219) aproached a very interesting experience. It consisted on to take some architects with their eyes covered (they were blind) in the city of Barcelona and they had to guess the place where they were. This is very interesting if you stop to analyze what are our mechanism to orientate in a place. Our eyes are one of the main tool for it but not the only one. Do you imagine the experience? to be blind for some time. But let me tell you what these architects said:

"The bus made countless turns, and I lost all idea of where I was. Other members of the excursion would say, later, that the first thing they'd noticed was that they were hearing things much more clearly. I have to say that exactly the opposite happened to me. I had the most uncomfortable feeling that, apart from being blind, I was also becoming deaf, not because I wasn’t hearing things but beause I wasn’t distinguishing what it was I was hearing. In my case, at least, sound was completely subject to the image of what was producing it. In not being able to see my surroundings, voices and noises were jumbled into one woolly, irreconcilable whole”.

So we can say that relationships between senses are altered and their intensity changes!?? Sounds, changes of temperature, smells, and even flavors, could serve to “register” at times of disorientation!??.

One of the men said too:
“You note that the semalls either have weight or are light or are dense, that sounds thell you the size of a space- the distance there is between you and the transmitting source –.”

There is a part of the article that it’s specially poetic. It’s when one of the “blind men” describe his experience with the sun: “My blindness made me enjoy the sun on my face with reat intensity, almost as if it were a caress. It was like they were passing a recently-ironed piece of silk over my features.” Or for example the a curious reasoning about the egocentrism of movement in blindness. For him, in walking withour seeing one has the sensation of being innobile and that the world is being gently displaced behind one due to the thrust of the feet. Going up the staris means pushing the world downwards, going doewn them enalbes the floor to recoup its location on the surface.
I consider this a wise observation. It’s veryyyyyy important the mental place that we ourselves invent! inside our mind. But the act of seeing is so… beguiling , that it burns our understanding!. Our perception is our best wonder, “ours”, personal, and the one which we are the least conscious.

After this observation, don’t you wonder what is the objetive feature of a place? All of us orientate in the same way? If not… what would we do the same (objetivity)? What would we do different (subjetivity)? Where is the limit between this objetivity and subjetivity?

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 21 Qershor 2005 - 15:02:

well,in this case everything has a limit so even the orientation has a limit itself.normally every input is stored in the brain,it is elaborated and only the most useful information is saved while the others are lost.the input comes from our senses.the eyes are probably the most important but not the only.for example when u smell a flower and see its form u store information in ur brain.the next time u may not need to see it...just by smelling ur brain forms the image of the flower u saw for the first time.the same thing happens as u see a person for the first time,hear his voice or his name.the next time u don't need to see him.a simple call from that person reminds u of his face(there exist a special zone in the brain only for the recognition of the faces),or just by seeing him u remember his name.probably even closing the eyes and touchin his face u can form the image of his face and later recognise every input has its own characteristics and variations in these characteristics may bring to wrong may get used to take a road from one side(lets say from north)and u may not recognise it when u get it from south...becouse there may not be the same details that u keep in mind to recognise that road.

for the maps as i told u help us orientate in the world around.even the equilibrium is a result of the elaborations of the input informations we get...there have been done experiments by inducing several damages to the subject in the experiment and in some cases he was not able anymore to understand where he was.also there are some deseases like alzheimer where the main damage is in some nucleus in the center of the brain(i don't remeber their name in english,in italian it is gangli della base)which are responsable for the elaboration of the information and the subjects affected are not albe to descibe what they see or even remember simple things...
there maps are also important to have an idea of every our movement.every damage on the body surface is quickly recognised,everything we put on our hand is quickly weighted,its characteristics are seen(composition,surface,temperature ecc)and there exists special zones in the brain(maps)that collect the information.
it is wondering the fact that people who have lost an arm or a leg,still feel the presence of that leg and it even aches...this is becouse the zone resposable for that arm is undergoing to a trasforming process as it is not usefull anymore...ecc ecc...i don't know how much usefull these informations where darke...however i tried to give an answer

this topic is very large and very amazing and there is a complete book written by eric candel called "principles of neuroscience" which explains every aspect of this topic...

Postuar nga darke datė 28 Qershor 2005 - 10:07:


homosexuality is a psichological disorder?

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 28 Qershor 2005 - 14:56:

according to me it is a psychological disorder

fisrt of all there exist no gene determining that a person ia goin to be a gay or u can exclude the idea that there might be a genetical disorder in this case.(information based on a reply given on the magazine "QUARK")

now according to Charles Socarides, a clinical professor of psychiatry at Albert Einstein College of Medicine "Homosexuality is a psychological and psychiatric disorder. It is a purple menace that is threatening the proper design of gender distinctions in society"(this one was posted in the washington post)
Socarides believes that gayness is caused by a person's mental health. Mental health is influenced by many factors such as our nurturing as children, the environment we are exposed to, and the influence of the many different people in our lives.

but... the psychiatrist Judd Marmor believes that nurture and psychology are not probable causes of homosexuality. In 1952 the American Psychiatric Association produced a manual for categorizing mental illness, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). In this book homosexuality was classified as a sociopathic personality disorder. Judd Marmor helped to remove homosexuality from the DSM and in 1973 his efforts were realized. Marmor has been quoted as saying, "Overprotective mothers and withdrawing fathers create neurotic kids, not homosexuals" (Small 1993). This would imply that nurture and environment has nothing to do with creating homosexuals, only personalities.
(information gathered from internet)

according to me(,i'm just a student...look at the contrast here) it is a psychological disorder becouse homosexuality is not a normal situation in a male.there are the people around,the ambient around that can influence the person's ideas and change even his way to see the other cannot exclude growth problems like endocrinological problems,however they are not enough to make a person act like that. also there are rich and famous people who have proved everything and there remains just the idea to become i don't think this is normal...

Postuar nga darke datė 02 Korrik 2005 - 11:59:

Question evolution or disease?

how scientists distinguish between an illness or disease and an evolution in a feature of the human race? For example, let's say people is worried because their hair tends to fall down, and they have less and less hair in the heads. What if this fact would be an evolution because everytime it's more hot weather and we don't need the hair?:p Do you imagine if homosexual people would be a sted forward in the chain of the human specie? (Perfect human being: with the strong body of the men and the sensibility of the women! do you imagine that gays become hermaphrodits?

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 03 Korrik 2005 - 01:09:

homosexual people one step before?
ok ok let me try a say something about this:
first of all u got to consider the fact that evolution theory is just a theory and i haven't heard any scientific fact proving this theory.according to that theory the organisms started as one cell and developed in more and more complex organisms gaining a lot of functions and getting more and more complex and advanced in every aspect of their life...up to this point it seems ok but the question is how?i mean we hear every day the TV or the megazines sayin "new bones found .they named it homunus....and a word after and they begin to draw pictures and build every aspect of their life from hunting,eating ecc just with that bone...for me it is a bit strange.

the evolution theory started with darwin who first said this theory but darwin had no ida of what a cell is compesed of or that a new science called genetic was goin to destroy its theory...the genetic proves that the evolution theory is impossible...the evolutionists tried to hide themselves behind a mechanism called mutation and said that the organisms evolved with this mechanism...but the strange thind is that the mutations are harmfull and those who are not are silent(nothing happens) they do not produce any change inside the organism...they do not evolve the organism in new species...when we take for example the viruses,the one composed of RNA(ribonucleid acid)that has a high possibility to have mutations becouse of an enzime called RNA polimerase that makes mistakes in performing the replication of the genetic material...these viruses get the mutation but they do not trasform in another specie...they don't get arms or become 2 cells or more complex like starting to use oxygen that normally is toxic for most of tiny as u see there is no prove for the evolution theory started and evolved from the simple organisms like viruses or bacteria also...
now let's turn back to the human there any evolution in humans?(continues)

Postuar nga darke datė 03 Korrik 2005 - 11:44:

Po citoj ato qė tha NS-6

now let's turn back to the human there any evolution in humans?(continues)

just waiting for the continuation

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 06 Korrik 2005 - 16:30:

so we remained at the part of human we don't have evidence of a possible evolution in other animals why do we insist on the idea that the human have evolved from the monkeys...well,the genetic seems to give some facts to the evolutionists as it says that 98% of our genoma is the same as that of the monkeys(in another evidence later considered it was 95%)...up to here we can say that yeah it is probable but i may give some other numbers then:only 0.01% of our genoma is responsible for everything u see in a person from outside(face,colour of the eyes,hair ecc)and also only 2%(in another case 5%)of our genoma is means only this percentage contains the 30.000 genes responsible for everything in our body and the rest functions as a check up and control points of these genes...and also 30.000 genes...that's the same number of genes a rat has(the lab rats...let me call them topastrus laboratorus )...considering this we have to be like the rats but we're where is the evidence that the man evolved from the monkeys.

we can say that human kind evolved in the manner they see the world and in the knowlegde visual.i mean someone firstly said that 1+1=2 and later someone said 1+1+1=3 and later on there came another and said that 1+2=3 makin the solution we can say we have an evolution in knowlegde...

now here we got to the answer:as we don't have an evolution we cant say that the fact of the deseases is an evolution but it is just an internal problem of our genoma that with some kind of mechanisms gives these diseases...some of these are later trasmitted and some of these are acqiured...there exist no evolution from one species to another...i hope this is answer is satifying...however i'm gonna tell some more in the genetic part for this problem and also we're gonna speak again about it

Postuar nga darke datė 08 Korrik 2005 - 13:07:

Question question

why the menstruation is painful for some women and not for other ones?

Postuar nga darke datė 13 Korrik 2005 - 13:03:

Post The European Technology Platform for Innovative Medicines

Cod. A13072005

I've received this morning an email from the Office of International Projects and Research of UGR with information about the creation of the ETP (European Technology Platform) named "Innovative Medicines for Europe". Interesting info for the interested ones in medical sciencies.

The current priority for the Innovative Medicines Platform is to build a comprehensive Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) with a detailed roadmap
for its implementation. This SRA will identify the research needed to overcome key bottlenecks to innovation, from discovery of a novel drug target through to the approval of a new medicine. Recent advances in genetics, genomics and nanotechnologies will offer new and improved methodologies to researchers to help address these bottlenecks.

Now, the differents countries members from the UE are trying to organize national " mirrow" platforms of the European one in order to follow it in this effort.

Also check this link:

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 20 Korrik 2005 - 01:06:

the cause of the pain

Cod. A20072005

the painfull mestruations (called dysmenorrea)is a common situation that affects nearly 50% of the adult can be classified as primary and secondary.still noone knows the cause of the primary dysmenorrea that affects the women with an ovulatory mestrual cycle.the strong pain,caused by the contraction if the uterine smooth muscle ,is a result of prostaglandin formation from the secretive endometrium and their release during the fall of the endometrium cells.other symptoms are related to this situation,like cefalea,nausea,diarrea and in cases of severe pain even these severe cases the pain starts in the pelvic region and irradiate in the vertebral column,lumbar zone and legs.

the secondary mestrual pains are mostly caused by the use of contraceptives and some kind of situations like endometriosis.
in more than 80% of the cases the use of prostaglandin formation inhibitors is able to decrease the pain intensity(the mecchanism is the same as that of aspirine: blockin the enzime COX1 and 2 can stop the formation of prostaglandin.

most probably the prostaglandin formation doesn't happen or is smaller in the other 50% so the pain si not present.

Postuar nga Fajtori datė 20 Korrik 2005 - 03:11:

Kam nje pyetje. Pse kur hame shume veze na bejne alergji. Ku qendron ajo substanca qe shkakton alergjine? Cfare spjegimi filogjenetik ka kjo, dmth pse natyra ka zhvilluar dicka te tille?

pa ma marre dikush per keq do tedoja te perktheja kete pyetje ne anglisht duke qene se e lexon edhe darke dhe kjo teme pak a shume i perket po te kthehem nga shqiperia do te mundohem ti perkthej edhe pyetjet e meparshme...ose ose mundet edhe nje admin vete ti bej ato nese do.

so the question is(this is for darke):when we eat too many eggs we get an allergy.what causes it?is there any filogenetical explanation,why did the nature do it?

p.s1: the allergies are a kind of abnormal activation of the immune system against an antigen(antigen is every structure able to develop an immunitary response).so in this case qe have to find the structure able to do this.

p.s2:darke thank u for ur questions.i'm gonna miss those long questions...why...why...but u again.
see u in september

Postuar nga wydra datė 20 Korrik 2005 - 10:07:

you forgot to say that the last part was from NS-6

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 20 Korrik 2005 - 17:28:

excuse me

wydra is my fault....i modified the original part and added the part in bold...i forgot to mention it

Postuar nga Isra datė 21 Korrik 2005 - 10:45:

NS6, very interesting informations and productive discussion...

Darke, my congratulations for albanian language,:
NS6 wrote me about your nation.....

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 07 Shtator 2005 - 23:07:

Cod. A08092005

Po citoj ato qė tha Fajtori
when we eat too many eggs we get an allergy.what causes it?is there any filogenetical explanation,why did the nature do it?


i found the answer of this question in a magazine.there was an article on the food allergies and among them was the allergy caused by the egg:
there were 3 compounds called ovoalbumin,ovomucin and ovotrasferrin that can stimulate the immunitary system and sometimes cause allergies and the grade of stimulation had a relation with the amount of the the article was also written that a well-baked egg decreases the probability of allergy by 70% becouse these substances were destroyed by heat,except the ovomucin that was resistent...i hope this answer is enought for the question

Postuar nga darke datė 10 Shtator 2005 - 10:06:

Miredita shqiptare! Miredita doctor NS-6!

i think all of us are coming back from holidays to our seats of computer commands:p We should write about our memories and experiences this summer. I bet there are a lot to tell, above all having in account that albanians are a race of travellers:p Anyway, greetings to everybody and for not losing good costumes, i will ask something (i have more questions but no way we are in medical section so a question about biology?) it's related to the menstruation again:

Is there any other female mammal animal with menstruation or it happens only to women? if no, why not, why only human women? if yes, it hurts to them too?

Tung tung!

Postuar nga Isra datė 12 Shtator 2005 - 10:11:

Darke, right question...

I'm looking forward knowing the answer.....

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 12 Shtator 2005 - 23:16:

Po citoj ato qė tha isra
Darke, right question...

I'm looking forward knowing the answer.....

i told u she's very curious ...ok give me some time to find the answer becouse i truly don't know it!i mean i can tell u why it happens in the female woman but i don't know the answer of the rest of the there anybody who studies biology here?

Postuar nga Fajtori datė 13 Shtator 2005 - 18:39:

As i remember, dogs has also a cycle. But it is called ESTRO, because they dont bleed. Simply the uterus wall is absorbed by the organism so we dont see bleeding like the human female.

For the last judgment lets wait for ns-6, cause I dont remember exactly if the human female is the uniqe one to have menstruations.

Postuar nga wydra datė 13 Shtator 2005 - 18:47:

it's not unique, at least as far as I know. I think there are some kind of apes who do have menstruations as well. But I heard that some dogs also do bleed... I don't remember where I heard it though, might not be true.

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 13 Shtator 2005 - 23:20:

Po citoj ato qė tha Fajtori
For the last judgment lets wait for ns-6, cause I dont remember exactly if the human female is the uniqe one to have menstruations.

u don't need to wait for me for the last judgement ...if any of u has anything to say as a reply,is invited to say it...

let me tell u something i found searchin in the web:
Wild relatives of the domestic animals do not menstruate. They have mating seasons - called heat, rut or estrus - which usually happen only once or twice a year. At this time the females ovulate and their genital organs become slightly congested and moistened with mucus in preparation for mating and likely conception. In the wild, nature has tied ovulation closely to the availability of food, and in times of scarcity estrus may not occur.

But in domesticated animals and animals kept in zoos who have constant access to unnatural and often concentrated food supplies, the picture is very different - these animals experience a periodic bloody discharge the equivalent of human menstruation. This is especially noticeable in normally plant-eating animals made to eat dry high-protein feed. When these captive animals are instead fed on the fresh natural plant foods they'd normally eat, the menstruation ceases.

"Experiments on animals have conclusively shown that the frequency of ovulation, and consequently estrus (corresponding to menstruation in humans), is a DIRECT function of diet. Over-feeding, especially on protein foods (and of the wrong kind of protein), has the tendency to accelerate (stimulate) the growth and bursting of the Graafian follicles [which produce the eggs] by creating an excess of follicular fluid. In women this results in menstrual discharge.... Undomesticated animals do NOT menstruate.... But under conditions of domestication or captivity, these sexual periods become more frequent, and the genital congestion attending them becomes more intense, until it finally manifests as a menstrual hemorrhage. It is now agreed by most observers that the cause of menstruation among domesticated animals is the food they receive at the hands of man. In other words, after the non-menstruating animal is captured, the pro-estrum becomes transformed into a bloody flow as a result of unnatural foods and artificial conditions of living."

this is one part of the answer...interesting i might say ...never had such a question before ...
p.s if any of u finds anything about the questions,write it down.this topic is in english and this is another advantage that if u find anything in english just do copy-paste here...remember only to give the main idea becouse very long answers are not read by people(the part i wrote above was taken from an article near 4-5 pages i might say).i hope i dont remember to traslate the most interesting parts.i ask any help to the admins too if any of them can make any traslation in albanian.

Postuar nga darke datė 14 Shtator 2005 - 11:59:

Lightbulb impressive!

wow, this is quite interesting: menstruation is related to food! It would be very interesting to analyze if the women of Africa (for example) who have lack of food, lose their menstruation or it's less frequent than a month.

Well, i have another question about menstruation. This time is a question about what is there of certainty in the relation between the menstruation and the cycles of the moon? and why it occurs? How is the process of influency?

(I want to say that I'm not obssesed with menstruation it's just that there are a lot of mistery around it, and this is something that feed my curiosity).

PS: I have to say that my cat has no menstruation but the cycles of fertility. It is supposed that the cats are considered still "wild" animals even if they live in human homes? And I have to say that we feed the cat everyday:p

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 14 Shtator 2005 - 15:59:

ur curiosity is impressive :p

uej uej calm down!!! many questions at a time!...kiddin...u make the questions and whenever i have time i'll try to find the answer(the others are not excluded too)

for the part of the women of africa...there is no need to make any research for that becouse the science has already proved that alterations of eating causes alterations of the cycles...this may be as an effect of the malnutrition or as a decrease of the support of nutrients from the diet(sorry for any mistake i might have made )

see u later,everyone!

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 19 Shtator 2005 - 00:42:

anorexia nervosa and amehnorrea

Cod. A19092005

as i told u the fact of the malnutrition is already proved by science...there's a disease called anorexia nervosa that is mostly spread in new generation women who try to keep themselves in those body standart the models they see in the TV or in magazines.they are too anxious for their weight and make some self-personalized diets without the consensus of the doctor...after a short time they begin to show some kind of symptoms like the deficit of nutrients and general fall of body conditions.
one of them is amenohrrea,that can be defined as a lack of metruations.this lack is due to the lack of stimulation of a releasing hormone called gonadotrophin releasing hormone that is secreted by the hypothalamus and it stimulates the pituitary gland to produce 2 hormones :luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone that are responsable for the growth of the endometrium and all the cycle variations includind even the bleeding case of this disease there is no stimulation of hypothalamus to secrete this GnRH and so there is amenohrrea...(informations based on the notes taken in a pathology lesson on the absorbtion of the nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract)

now lets pass at the other question: the moon influency?lets see what i can find about this becouse i don thave any idea for its influence in the mestrua cycle...

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 01 Tetor 2005 - 00:13:

derivation of the word "menstruation"

Cod. A01102005

i found smth about the question of the moon influence on the mestrual cycle:

The word menses, which means menstruation, is derived from the Latin mensis, meaning months. Related words, like menstruation and menstrual, have similar origins. The connection between the moon and menstruation is probably because of the similarity of the length of the average menstrual period with the time the moon takes to go from one phase to that same phase again, although I know there are many people out there who will say the connection is tighter.
People have made this connection for millennia, and there are many beliefs in many cultures about the relationship; the topic seems endless.
This connection is vehemently denied, by the way, by the male author of a modern gynecology text I own.
The book Blood Magic:The Anthropology of Menstruation (edited by Thomas Buckley and Alma Gottlieb, University of California Press, 1988), cites studies that the authors say show that moonlight can indeed influence a menstrual cycle (for example, "Lunar periodicity in human reproduction: A likely unit of biological time," in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 77:905-914, 1959, by W. Menaker and A. Menaker; and "Lunar periodicity," in Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology 25:491-497, 1960, by C. Hauenschild.)

and let me give u another site page that talks for the same thing:

well,i hope this is an answer to the question
i'm gonna write down another article now that talks about the differences noticed in the brain of the women and that of the man...very very interesting...see u later

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 03 Tetor 2005 - 00:06:

his brain VS her brain (part 1)

Cod. B03102005

let me introduce u to one of the most interesting articles i have found in internet.its a neuroscience article and talks about brains ..the latest research based results.i'll divide the article in pieces so that it wont be too long(and noone reads it)

the article is written by LARRY CAHILL (received his Ph.D. in neuroscience in 1990 from the University of California, Irvine. After spending two years in Germany using imaging techniques to explore learning and memory in gerbils, he returned to U.C. Irvine, where he is now an associate professor in the department of neurobiology and behavior and a Fellow of the Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. )

It turns out that male and female brains differ quite a bit in architecture and activity. Research into these variations could lead to sex-specific treatments for disorders such as depression and schizophrenia.

On a gray day in mid-January, Lawrence Summers, the president of Harvard University, suggested that innate differences in the build of the male and female brain might be one factor underlying the relative scarcity of women in science. His remarks reignited a debate that has been smoldering for a century, ever since some scientists sizing up the brains of both sexes began using their main finding--that female brains tend to be smaller--to bolster the view that women are intellectually inferior to men.
To date, no one has uncovered any evidence that anatomical disparities might render women incapable of achieving academic distinction in math, physics or engineering. And the brains of men and women have been shown to be quite clearly similar in many ways. Nevertheless, over the past decade investigators have documented an astonishing array of structural, chemical and functional variations in the brains of males and females.

These inequities are not just interesting idiosyncrasies that might explain why more men than women enjoy the Three Stooges. They raise the possibility that we might need to develop sex-specific treatments for a host of conditions, including depression, addiction, schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Furthermore, the differences imply that researchers exploring the structure and function of the brain must take into account the sex of their subjects when analyzing their data--and include both women and men in future studies or risk obtaining misleading results....(continues)

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 04 Tetor 2005 - 15:59:

his brain VS her brain (part 2)

Not so long ago neuroscientists believed that sex differences in the brain were limited mainly to those regions responsible for mating behavior. In a 1966 Scientific American article entitled "Sex Differences in the Brain," Seymour Levine of Stanford University described how sex hormones help to direct divergent reproductive behaviors in rats--with males engaging in mounting and females arching their backs and raising their rumps to attract suitors. Levine mentioned only one brain region in his review: the hypothalamus, a small structure at the base of the brain that is involved in regulating hormone production and controlling basic behaviors such as eating, drinking and sex. A generation of neuroscientists came to maturity believing that "sex differences in the brain" referred primarily to mating behaviors, sex hormones and the hypothalamus.

That view, however, has now been knocked aside by a surge of findings that highlight the influence of sex on many areas of cognition and behavior, including memory, emotion, vision, hearing, the processing of faces and the brain's response to stress hormones. This progress has been accelerated in the past five to 10 years by the growing use of sophisticated noninvasive imaging techniques such as positron-emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which can peer into the brains of living subjects.

These imaging experiments reveal that anatomical variations occur in an assortment of regions throughout the brain. Jill M. Goldstein of Harvard Medical School and her colleagues, for example, used MRI to measure the sizes of many cortical and subcortical areas. Among other things, these investigators found that parts of the frontal cortex, the seat of many higher cognitive functions, are bulkier in women than in men, as are parts of the limbic cortex, which is involved in emotional responses. In men, on the other hand, parts of the parietal cortex, which is involved in space perception, are bigger than in women, as is the amygdala, an almond-shaped structure that responds to emotionally arousing information--to anything that gets the heart pumping and the adrenaline flowing. These size differences, as well as others mentioned throughout the article, are relative: they refer to the overall volume of the structure relative to the overall volume of the brain....continues

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 08 Tetor 2005 - 14:18:

his brain VS her brain (part 3)

Differences in the size of brain structures are generally thought to reflect their relative importance to the animal. For example, primates rely more on vision than olfaction; for rats, the opposite is true. As a result, primate brains maintain proportionately larger regions devoted to vision, and rats devote more space to olfaction. So the existence of widespread anatomical disparities between men and women suggests that sex does influence the way the brain works.

Other investigations are finding anatomical sex differences at the cellular level. For example, Sandra Witelson and her colleagues at McMaster University discovered that women possess a greater density of neurons in parts of the temporal lobe cortex associated with language processing and comprehension. On counting the neurons in postmortem samples, the researchers found that of the six layers present in the cortex, two show more neurons per unit volume in females than in males. Similar findings were subsequently reported for the frontal lobe. With such information in hand, neuroscientists can now explore whether sex differences in neuron number correlate with differences in cognitive abilities--examining, for example, whether the boost in density in the female auditory cortex relates to women's enhanced performance on tests of verbal fluency.

Such anatomical diversity may be caused in large part by the activity of the sex hormones that bathe the fetal brain. These steroids help to direct the organization and wiring of the brain during development and influence the structure and neuronal density of various regions. Interestingly, the brain areas that Goldstein found to differ between men and women are ones that in animals contain the highest number of sex hormone receptors during development. This correlation between brain region size in adults and sex steroid action in utero suggests that at least some sex differences in cognitive function do not result from cultural influences or the hormonal changes associated with puberty--they are there from birth.

Inborn Inclinations
Several intriguing behavioral studies add to the evidence that some sex differences in the brain arise before a baby draws its first breath. Through the years, many researchers have demonstrated that when selecting toys, young boys and girls part ways. Boys tend to gravitate toward balls or toy cars, whereas girls more typically reach for a doll. But no one could really say whether those preferences are dictated by culture or by innate brain biology...continues

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 11 Tetor 2005 - 00:29:

his brain VS her brain (part 4)

PET(positron emitting tomography) SCANS, such as those above made by Mirko Diksic and his colleagues at McGill University, reveal that the brains of males produce serotonin at a faster rate than those of females. Serotonin influences mood, so the finding may help make sense of the observation that more women than men suffer depression.
To address this question, Melissa Hines of City University London and Gerianne M. Alexander of Texas A&M University turned to monkeys, one of our closest animal cousins. The researchers presented a group of vervet monkeys with a selection of toys, including rag dolls, trucks and some gender-neutral items such as picture books. They found that male monkeys spent more time playing with the "masculine" toys than their female counterparts did, and female monkeys spent more time interacting with the playthings typically preferred by girls. Both sexes spent equal time monkeying with the picture books and other gender-neutral toys.
Because vervet monkeys are unlikely to be swayed by the social pressures of human culture, the results imply that toy preferences in children result at least in part from innate biological differences. This divergence, and indeed all the anatomical sex differences in the brain, presumably arose as a result of selective pressures during evolution. In the case of the toy study, males--both human and primate--prefer toys that can be propelled through space and that promote rough-and-tumble play. These qualities, it seems reasonable to speculate, might relate to the behaviors useful for hunting and for securing a mate. Similarly, one might also hypothesize that females, on the other hand, select toys that allow them to hone the skills they will one day need to nurture their young.

Simon Baron-Cohen and his associates at the University of Cambridge took a different but equally creative approach to addressing the influence of nature versus nurture regarding sex differences. Many researchers have described disparities in how "people-centered" male and female infants are. For example, Baron-Cohen and his student Svetlana Lutchmaya found that one-year-old girls spend more time looking at their mothers than boys of the same age do. And when these babies are presented with a choice of films to watch, the girls look longer at a film of a face, whereas boys lean toward a film featuring cars.

Of course, these preferences might be attributable to differences in the way adults handle or play with boys and girls. To eliminate this possibility, Baron-Cohen and his students went a step further. They took their video camera to a maternity ward to examine the preferences of babies that were only one day old. The infants saw either the friendly face of a live female student or a mobile that matched the color, size and shape of the student's face and included a scrambled mix of her facial features. To avoid any bias, the experimenters were unaware of each baby's sex during testing. When they watched the tapes, they found that the girls spent more time looking at the student, whereas the boys spent more time looking at the mechanical object. This difference in social interest was evident on day one of life--implying again that we come out of the womb with some cognitive sex differences built in...continues

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 16 Tetor 2005 - 00:08:

his brain VS her brain (part 5)

Under Stress
In many cases, sex differences in the brain's chemistry and construction influence how males and females respond to the environment or react to, and remember, stressful events. Take, for example, the amygdala. Goldstein and others have reported that the amygdala is larger in men than in women. And in rats, the neurons in this region make more numerous interconnections in males than in females. These anatomical variations would be expected to produce differences in the way that males and females react to stress.

To assess whether male and female amygdalae in fact respond differently to stress, Katharina Braun and her co-workers at Otto von Guericke University in Magdeburg, Germany, briefly removed a litter of Degu pups from their mother. For these social South American rodents, which live in large colonies like prairie dogs do, even temporary separation can be quite upsetting. The researchers then measured the concentration of serotonin receptors in various brain regions. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter, or signal-carrying molecule, that is key for mediating emotional behavior. (Prozac, for example, acts by increasing serotonin function.)
The workers allowed the pups to hear their mother's call during the period of separation and found that this auditory input increased the serotonin receptor concentration in the males' amygdala, yet decreased the concentration of these same receptors in females. Although it is difficult to extrapolate from this study to human behavior, the results hint that if something similar occurs in children, separation anxiety might differentially affect the emotional well-being of male and female infants. Experiments such as these are necessary if we are to understand why, for instance, anxiety disorders are far more prevalent in girls than in boys.
Another brain region now known to diverge in the sexes anatomically and in its response to stress is the hippocampus, a structure crucial for memory storage and for spatial mapping of the physical environment. Imaging consistently demonstrates that the hippocampus is larger in women than in men. These anatomical differences might well relate somehow to differences in the way males and females navigate. Many studies suggest that men are more likely to navigate by estimating distance in space and orientation ("dead reckoning"), whereas women are more likely to navigate by monitoring landmarks. Interestingly, a similar sex difference exists in rats. Male rats are more likely to navigate mazes using directional and positional information, whereas female rats are more likely to navigate the same mazes using available landmarks. (Investigators have yet to demonstrate, however, that male rats are less likely to ask for directions.)...continues

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 19 Tetor 2005 - 01:00:

his brain VS her brain (part 6)

Even the neurons in the hippocampus behave differently in males and females, at least in how they react to learning experiences. For example, Janice M. Juraska and her associates at the University of Illinois have shown that placing rats in an "enriched environment"--cages filled with toys and with fellow rodents to promote social interactions--produced dissimilar effects on the structure of hippocampal neurons in male and female rats. In females, the experience enhanced the "bushiness" of the branches in the cells' dendritic trees--the many-armed structures that receive signals from other nerve cells. This change presumably reflects an increase in neuronal connections, which in turn is thought to be involved with the laying down of memories. In males, however, the complex environment either had no effect on the dendritic trees or pruned them slightly.

But male rats sometimes learn better in the face of stress. Tracey J. Shors of Rutgers University and her collaborators have found that a brief exposure to a series of one-second tail shocks enhanced performance of a learned task and increased the density of dendritic connections to other neurons in male rats yet impaired performance and decreased connection density in female rats. Findings such as these have interesting social implications. The more we discover about how brain mechanisms of learning differ between the sexes, the more we may need to consider how optimal learning environments potentially differ for boys and girls.

Although the hippocampus of the female rat can show a decrement in response to acute stress, it appears to be more resilient than its male counterpart in the face of chronic stress. Cheryl D. Conrad and her co-workers at Arizona State University restrained rats in a mesh cage for six hours--a situation that the rodents find disturbing. The researchers then assessed how vulnerable their hippocampal neurons were to killing by a neurotoxin--a standard measure of the effect of stress on these cells. They noted that chronic restraint rendered the males' hippocampal cells more susceptible to the toxin but had no effect on the females' vulnerability. These findings, and others like them, suggest that in terms of brain damage, females may be better equipped to tolerate chronic stress than males are. Still unclear is what protects female hippocampal cells from the damaging effects of chronic stress, but sex hormones very likely play a role....continues

Postuar nga darke datė 23 Tetor 2005 - 12:46:

Question Re: his brain VS her brain (part 6)

Po citoj ato qė tha NS-6
Findings such as these have interesting social implications. The more we discover about how brain mechanisms of learning differ between the sexes, the more we may need to consider how optimal learning environments potentially differ for boys and girls.

This is very interesting and important matter... so it means that girls and boys would need a different environment for education to develop best the skills of each other??

Pershendetje liri

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 23 Tetor 2005 - 20:23:

his brain VS her brain (part 7)

darkeeee,i missed a reply of urs in this topic...probably my fault but this article is a bit too long and i just couldn't make a summary so i'm tryin a post it all in pieces so that everyone cna read it without running...

it means that we(or better lets say the scientists or the farmacology or psycology ecc) should consider the environment effect according to sex abilities and that these abilities are not the same for both of reality the findings of this article haven't been considerd too much up to now but htey are goin to effect the future results in therapies and the way we see the problems concerning males and means we have to consider another factor in order to approach the problems in an accurate way...
so let me continue with the article....there are still 2 more posts and its over...

The Big Picture
Extending the work on how the brain handles and remembers stressful events, my colleagues and I have found contrasts in the way men and women lay down memories of emotionally arousing incidents--a process known from animal research to involve activation of the amygdala. In one of our first experiments with human subjects, we showed volunteers a series of graphically violent films while we measured their brain activity using PET. A few weeks later we gave them a quiz to see what they remembered.

We discovered that the number of disturbing films they could recall correlated with how active their amygdala had been during the viewing. Subsequent work from our laboratory and others confirmed this general finding. But then I noticed something strange. The amygdala activation in some studies involved only the right hemisphere, and in others it involved only the left hemisphere. It was then I realized that the experiments in which the right amygdala lit up involved only men; those in which the left amygdala was fired up involved women. Since then, three subsequent studies--two from our group and one from John Gabrieli and Turhan Canli and their collaborators at Stanford--have confirmed this difference in how the brains of men and women handle emotional memories.

The realization that male and female brains were processing the same emotionally arousing material into memory differently led us to wonder what this disparity might mean. To address this question, we turned to a century-old theory stating that the right hemisphere is biased toward processing the central aspects of a situation, whereas the left hemisphere tends to process the finer details. If that conception is true, we reasoned, a drug that dampens the activity of the amygdala should impair a man's ability to recall the gist of an emotional story (by hampering the right amygdala) but should hinder a woman's ability to come up with the precise details (by hampering the left amygdala).
Propranolol is such a drug. This so-called beta blocker quiets the activity of adrenaline and its cousin noradrenaline and, in so doing, dampens the activation of the amygdala and weakens recall of emotionally arousing memories. We gave this drug to men and women before they viewed a short slide show about a young boy caught in a terrible accident while walking with his mother. One week later we tested their memory. The results showed that propranolol made it harder for men to remember the more holistic aspects, or gist, of the story--that the boy had been run over by a car, for example. In women, propranolol did the converse, impairing their memory for peripheral details--that the boy had been carrying a soccer ball....continues

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 08 Nëntor 2005 - 01:06:

his brain VS her brain (part 8)

In more recent investigations, we found that we can detect a hemispheric difference between the sexes in response to emotional material almost immediately. Volunteers shown emotionally unpleasant photographs react within 300 milliseconds--a response that shows up as a spike on a recording of the brain's electrical activity. With Antonella Gasbarri and others at the University of L'Aquila in Italy, we have found that in men, this quick spike, termed a P300 response, is more exaggerated when recorded over the right hemisphere; in women, it is larger when recorded over the left. Hence, sex-related hemispheric disparities in how the brain processes emotional images begin within 300 milliseconds--long before people have had much, if any, chance to consciously interpret what they have seen.

These discoveries might have ramifications for the treatment of PTSD. Previous research by Gustav Schelling and his associates at Ludwig Maximilian University in Germany had established that drugs such as propranolol diminish memory for traumatic situations when administered as part of the usual therapies in an intensive care unit. Prompted by our findings, they found that, at least in such units, beta blockers reduce memory for traumatic events in women but not in men. Even in intensive care, then, physicians may need to consider the sex of their patients when meting out their medications.

Sex and Mental Disorders
ptsd is not the only psychological disturbance that appears to play out differently in women and men. A PET study by Mirko Diksic and his colleagues at McGill University showed that serotonin production was a remarkable 52 percent higher on average in men than in women, which might help clarify why women are more prone to depression--a disorder commonly treated with drugs that boost the concentration of serotonin.

A similar situation might prevail in addiction. In this case, the neurotransmitter in question is dopamine--a chemical involved in the feelings of pleasure associated with drugs of abuse. Studying rats, Jill B. Becker and her fellow investigators at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor discovered that in females, estrogen boosted the release of dopamine in brain regions important for regulating drug-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the hormone had long-lasting effects, making the female rats more likely to pursue cocaine weeks after last receiving the drug. Such differences in susceptibility--particularly to stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine--could explain why women might be more vulnerable to the effects of these drugs and why they tend to progress more rapidly from initial use to dependence than men do....continues

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 11 Nëntor 2005 - 00:26:

his brain VS her brain (part 9)

Certain brain abnormalities underlying schizophrenia appear to differ in men and women as well. Ruben Gur, Raquel Gur and their colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania have spent years investigating sex-related differences in brain anatomy and function. In one project, they measured the size of the orbitofrontal cortex, a region involved in regulating emotions, and compared it with the size of the amygdala, implicated more in producing emotional reactions. The investigators found that women possess a significantly larger orbitofrontal-to-amygdala ratio (OAR) than men do. One can speculate from these findings that women might on average prove more capable of controlling their emotional reactions.
In additional experiments, the researchers discovered that this balance appears to be altered in schizophrenia, though not identically for men and women. Women with schizophrenia have a decreased OAR relative to their healthy peers, as might be expected. But men, oddly, have an increased OAR relative to healthy men. These findings remain puzzling, but, at the least, they imply that schizophrenia is a somewhat different disease in men and women and that treatment of the disorder might need to be tailored to the sex of the patient.

Sex Matters
in a comprehensive 2001 report on sex differences in human health, the prestigious National Academy of Sciences asserted that "sex matters. Sex, that is, being male or female, is an important basic human variable that should be considered when designing and analyzing studies in all areas and at all levels of biomedical and health-related research."

Neuroscientists are still far from putting all the pieces together--identifying all the sex-related variations in the brain and pinpointing their influences on cognition and propensity for brain-related disorders. Nevertheless, the research conducted to date certainly demonstrates that differences extend far beyond the hypothalamus a nd mating behavior. Researchers and clinicians are not always clear on the best way to go forward in deciphering the full influences of sex on the brain, behavior and responses to medications. But growing numbers now agree that going back to assuming we can evaluate one sex and learn equally about both is no longer an option.

and thats all of the was a bit long but i think it worth the effort...i have to read it all from the beginning myself becouse when i first read it,it was in italian in the "le scienze" magazine...the results are very interesting and complicate the life of the researchers but at the same time open new ways to understand our body better...

Postuar nga darke datė 15 Nëntor 2005 - 23:47:

Re: his brain VS her brain (part 9)

Po citoj ato qė tha NS-6

and thats all of the was a bit long but i think it worth the effort...i have to read it all from the beginning myself becouse when i first read it,it was in italian in the "le scienze" magazine...the results are very interesting and complicate the life of the researchers but at the same time open new ways to understand our body better...

yes it's really interesting. According to this fragment of the article, it could be said that some persons would be more susceptible to suffer squizofrenia just because the form or size of any part of their brain? women are more propense?

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 15 Nëntor 2005 - 23:59:

probably but non absolutely sure... the article says that it may be like this,without leaving the other possibilities...u have to consider even the eziology and the pathogenesis of the disease and a lot of other things to arrive at this conclusion and this is not a simple thing of course...but here the article says that the brain regions concerning that disease are different between men and women...

Postuar nga darke datė 27 Nëntor 2005 - 11:29:

AIDS origin

Cod. A27112005

I received this morning an article in my inbox that surprised me. It's about a theory of the origin of AIDS. It seems that the origin is not in the african monkeys but in some experiments of usa goverment?? I don't know... Just take a look at it. What do you think?

The Gay Experiments That Started AIDS in America


There is no doubt that AIDS erupted in the U.S. shortly after government- sponsored hepatitis B vaccine experiments (1978-1981) using gay men as guinea pigs.

The epidemic was caused by the "introduction" of a new retrovirus (the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV for short); and the introduction of a new herpes-8 virus, the virus that causes Kaposi’s sarcoma, widely known as the "gay cancer" of AIDS.

The taboo theory that AIDS is a man-made disease is largely based on research showing an intimate connection between government vaccine experiments and the outbreak of "the gay plague."

The widely accepted theory is that HIV/AIDS originated in a monkey or chimpanzee virus that "jumped species" in Africa.

However, it is clear that the first AIDS cases were recorded in gay men in Manhattan in 1979, a few years before the epidemic was first noticed in Africa in 1982.

It is now claimed that the human herpes-8 virus (also called the KS virus), discovered in 1994, also originated when a primate herpes virus jumped species in Africa.

How two African species-jumping viruses ended up exclusively in gay men in Manhattan beginning in the late 1970s has never been satisfactorily explained.

Researchers who claim AIDS is a man-made disease believe it is much more likely that these two primate viruses were introduced and spread during the government’s recruitment of thousands of male homosexuals beginning in 1974.

Large numbers of gay men in Manhattan donated blood for the experimental hepatitis B vaccine trial, which took place at the New York Blood Center in Manhattan in 1978.

Extensive evidence supporting the man-made theory of AIDS is easily found on the Internet by Googling: man-made origin of AIDS; and in my two books, "AIDS and the Doctors of Death" and "Queer Blood: The Secret AIDS Genocide Plot."


Beginning in the mid-1970s, government scientists became interested in the health of gay men, particularly in the realm of sexually- transmitted diseases, and specifically in the sexual transmission of the hepatitis B virus.

The early 1970s was a time when large numbers of gays come out of the closet and identified themselves as homosexuals at government- sponsored health clinics.

Organizations such as the Gay Men’s Health Project were formed at this time. Promiscuous gays were avidly sought as volunteers to test the efficacy of a newly-developed hepatitis B vaccine manufactured by Merck and the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

By 1977 over 13,000 Manhattan gays were screened to secure the final 1083 men who would serve as guinea pigs to test the hepatitis B vaccine.

The vaccine was manufactured from the combined plasma of 30 highly selected gay men who carried the hepatitis B virus in their blood. Developed over a period of 65 weeks during 1977-1978 and tested for six months in chimpanzees (the primate in which HIV is thought to have originated), the first group of gay men were inoculated at the New York Blood Center in November 1978.

That same year a final cohort of 6875 homosexual men at the San Francisco City Clinic was assembled to study hepatitis B virus sexual transmission in that city.

By the end of the decade gays in clinics in Los Angeles, Denver, Chicago, and St. Louis, also came under surveillance by the Centers for Disease Control. An additional 1402 volunteers were finally selected to participate in similar vaccine experiments in those cities beginning in March 1980.

Before 1978 there was no stored blood anywhere in the U.S. that tested positive for HIV or the KS virus. There were no cases of AIDS and no cases of "gay cancer" in young men.

The first cases of AIDS appeared shortly after the experiment began in Manhattan. In June 1981 the epidemic became official and was quickly labeled the "gay–related immune deficiency syndrome," later known as AIDS.

The gay community was the most hated minority in America. After the experiments ended, the gay community was decimated by the "gay plague."

In the first years of AIDS, the epidemic was largely ignored by the government (see Randy Shilt’s best-seller, "And the Band Played On") and the disease was blamed on gay anal sex, drugs, and promiscuity.

Gays were immediately labeled "high risk."

In my view, what made gay men "high risk" was the fact that they were the exclusive volunteers for government medical experiments that undoubtedly put them at "high risk."

The evidence for this conclusion is outlined in this report. Further evidence can be obtained from abstracts of scientific reports available on the Internet at the PubMed website of the National Library of Medicine.


The experimental hepatitis B vaccine injected into gays was unlike any other vaccine previously made.

As stated, it was developed in chimpanzees and manufactured in a year-long process of sterilization and purification of the pooled blood of 30 gay men who were hepatitis B virus carriers.

The final group of 1083 selected for the first experiment at the Blood Center were inoculated from November 1978 until October 1979. At one point, there was great concern that the vaccine might be contaminated. According to June Goodfield’s "Quest for the Killers," p 86, "This was no theoretical fear, contamination having been suspected in one batch made by the National Institutes of Health, though never in Merck's."

Each gay man was given three inoculations of the vaccine over a period of three months. The vaccine proved successful with 96% of the men developing protective antibodies against the hepatitis B virus.

It has been assumed by some that these men might have been already immunosuppressed due to promiscuity and venereal disease. Although the young men in the study were indeed "promiscuous" (this was a requirement for entrance into the study), they were in excellent health.

Despite many previous sexual partners, these volunteers had never been infected with the hepatitis B virus, which was a requirement for participation in the experiment. Furthermore, the 96% success rate would not have been accomplished if the men were immunosuppressed, because such people often do not respond to the vaccine.

When Robert Gallo's blood test for HIV became available in the mid-1980s, the New York Blood Center's stored gay blood specimens were reexamined.

Most astonishing is the fact that 20% of the gay men who volunteered for the hepatitis B experiment in Manhattan were discovered to be HIV-positive in 1980 (one year before the AIDS epidemic became "official" in 1981).

This signifies that Manhattan gays in 1980 had the highest incidence of HIV anywhere in the world, including Africa, the supposed birthplace of HIV and AIDS.

In addition, we now know that one out of five gay men (20%) tested positive for the new KS herpes-8 virus in 1982 when stored blood samples from an AIDS trial in New York City were re-examined by epidemiologists at the NCI in 1999.

Never mentioned by AIDS historians is the fact that the New York Blood Center established a chimp virus laboratory for viral vaccine research in West Africa in 1974.

One of the purposes of VILAB II, in Robertsfield, Liberia, was to develop the hepatitis B vaccine in chimps. The lab also prides itself by releasing rehabilitated" (but virus-infected) chimps back into the wild, perhaps accounting for some of the ancestors of HIV and the KS virus found in the jungle by some government researchers.


In the decade before AIDS, the Virus Cancer Program (1968-1980), sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, attempted to prove that viruses caused human cancer.

Ultimately the Program was unsuccessful in providing proof, yet it succeeded in building up the field of animal retrovirology, which led to a more complete understanding of how cancer-causing and immunosuppressive viruses in animals might cause disease in humans.

The VCP was also the birthplace of genetic engineering, molecular biology, and the human genome project. As the VCP was winding down in the late 1970s, the gay experiments began in New York City.

The introduction of HIV and the KS herpes virus into gay men during this period (along with some "novel" and now-patented mycoplasmas discovered at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology) miraculously revived the career of Robert Gallo and made him the most famous virologist in the world.

And, of course, turned the "failure" of the VCP into a triumph by providing proof that these primate-derived viruses could cause disease in humans.


When AIDS began there were scattered reports in the medical journals questioning whether the "gay plague" might have its origin in the hepatitis B experiments.

It was well-known in medical circles that the vaccine was made from the pooled plasma of gay men — and there was fear that the AIDS agent might be in the vaccine. As a result, when the hepatitis B commercial vaccine became available in July 1982, many people refused to be injected with it.

The fear of the vaccine was readily admitted by the CDC. Nevertheless, in detailed reports the CDC concluded that the vaccine was safe. Although it was clear the hepatitis B vaccine eliminated all "known" viruses, this obviously did not apply to "unknown" viruses at the time, such as HIV and the KS virus.

After HIV was discovered in 1984, some of the vaccine was retested and declared free of HIV. Of course, it was impossible to say whether the vaccine contained the KS virus, because this virus was undiscovered until 1994. I am unaware of any subsequent testing of the vaccine for this herpes KS virus.

Possible contamination problems with the hepatitis vaccine was the impetus that led Luc Montagnier to hunt for a virus in the new gay disease in the autumn of 1982. He began testing batches of human plasma for "reverse transcriptase activity", a biochemical sign indicating the possible presence of a retrovirus. (See page 46 of his book "Virus").

Montagnier's research eventually led to the first discovery of the AIDS virus at the Pasteur Institute in Paris.

Although the CDC and the New York Blood Center claimed it was safe, many health professionals refused the hepatitis B vaccine. In 1985, only 23 out of 162 Rhode Island dentists agreed to take the vaccine because of concerns about AIDS.

As late as 1990, 13 out of 14 black nurses at a university hospital refused to take the vaccine for the same reason.


The purpose of the gay experiments was to test a vaccine that could immunize people against hepatitis B virus. Infection with this virus could lead to severe liver disease and sometimes to liver cancer. Ironically, an unprecedented explosion of cancer took place in male homosexuals after the experiment.

Reports of the fate of these men attest to the fact that participating in the government’s experiments was clearly injurious to the health of gay men.

Significantly, there were no reported blood specimens anywhere in the U.S. that were HIV-positive prior to the epidemic in 1979, except in the samples stored at the NYBC.

In a May 12, 1983, letter to the editor of The New England Journal of Medicine, Cladd Stevens (who supervised the NYBC experiment) wrote : "No cases haves occurred in the vaccine recipients from populations at low risk of AIDS, and there is no excess incidence in the high-risk population." But this proved to be incorrect in later reports co-authored by Stevens.

In a 1985 report Cladd Stevens et al. claimed that seven men (out of 1083) were HIV-positive before they received either vaccine or placebo. If true, this indicates that HIV (and possibly the KS virus) was already present in the blood of Manhattan homosexuals and could have contaminated the pooled blood of gays whose plasma was used to make the vaccine in 1977.

As stated previously, a 1986 report in JAMA showed 20% of the men in the experiment were already infected with HIV by the end of 1981; and by 1984, more than 40% of the men were HIV-positive and doomed to death.

Another follow-up study of 8,906 gay men who donated blood for the hepatitis experiments in Manhattan was released in 1992. Statistical analysis of this group showed that mortality rates for men aged 25-44 began to rise in the 1980s, with AIDS the leading cause of death among young men in New York City. Remarkably, "The all-cause mortality in this cohort in 1988 was 24 times higher that the mortality rate in the cohort before the beginning of the AIDS epidemic."


Largely forgotten in AIDS history is the hepatitis B vaccine trial that also took place with 685 gay Dutch volunteers in Amsterdam between November 1980 and December 1981.

Unlike the American vaccine makers, the Dutch researchers heated their experimental hepatitis B vaccine for added safety.

A 1986 report of the trial clearly states the AIDS virus "was not transmitted by the heat inactivated hepatitis B vaccine."

Of the 685 participants, five were already infected with HIV when the trial began. The researchers theorized that HIV entered the Dutch gay population at the end of the 1970s.

Another follow-up Dutch report of this trial in 1993 again suggests the efficacy of heating the vaccine for safety. (The experimental vaccine was not heated in the U.S. until after all the gay experiments were completed.) At the end of 1982, one year after the Dutch experiment had ended, only As stated previously, a 1986 report in JAMA showed 20% of the men in the experiment were already infected with HIV by the end of 1981; and by 1984, more than 40% of the men were HIV-positive and doomed to death.

7.5% of the Amsterdam men were infected. In contrast, 26.8% of the men in the New York experiment were HIV-positive; and a whopping 42.6% of the San Francisco men were HIV-positive.

These statistics showing many men infected in the American trials in 1982 further prove that Cladd Stevens of the NYBC, and the CDC, were incorrect in declaring there was no excess incidence of AIDS in the "high-risk" gay male population.

The fate of all the men who participated in the hepatitis B vaccine trials in six U.S cities has never been revealed. However, it is likely from the statistics presented in JAMA in 1986 that many, if not most, of the men eventually died of AIDS.

The actual number of AIDS deaths has never been revealed, nor have the individual medical records been studied. Attempts to secure this information have been rebuffed by the Blood Center, due to the "confidential" nature of the experiment.


After the introduction of HIV and the KS virus into the U.S. gay male population in the late 1970s, the incidence of KS skyrocketed.

A 1989 report by Biggar found no cases of KS in young men in New York City during the years 1973-1976. But by 1985 the incidence of KS in "never-married men" in Manhattan had increased 1850 times. In San Francisco the rate of KS increased over 2000 times!

KS is now 20,000 times more common in AIDS patients than in the general population. A 1985 autopsy study by Lee Moskowitz of 52 AIDS cases (23 Haitians, 19 gays, 5 intravenous drug abusers, 2 hemophiliacs, and 3 persons at unknown risk) showed that 94% of AIDS patients from the various risk groups had internal KS. The CDC claims KS now occurs in only 15% of gay men (down from 30% at the beginning of the epidemic), but these statistics are not based on current autopsy studies

KS was never a sexually-transmitted disease before the introduction of HIV into gays. For a century after the first reported KS cases were discovered in Vienna in 1872, there was no evidence that KS could be transmitted from person-to-person.

By 1950, a more aggressive "endemic" form of KS was uncovered in African blacks. Still, there was no evidence the disease was transmissible or contagious. Suddenly with the introduction of HIV into the homosexual community, scientists began to view KS as a contagious "gay cancer" out of Africa.

The new KS virus is closely related to a monkey tumor virus, known as herpes virus saimiri, that was extensively studied by researchers in the VCP in the decade before the epidemic. Initially found only in KS from AIDS patients, the new KS virus has also been found in non-AIDS-related KS tumors and in other forms of cancer, such as lymphoma and multiple myeloma.

HIV is a cancer-causing virus. Infection with HIV (with or without the KS virus) has resulted in a noticeable increase in various forms of cancer.

A 2005 study of over 4000 AIDS patients showed higher rates of melanoma, basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas, anal carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, and Hodgkin disease, when compared with age-adjusted rates for the general United States population.

The KS virus is now in the U.S. blood supply; and blood is not screened routinely for this virus. A 2001 study indicated that 15% of normal Texas blood donors showed evidence of KS virus infection in the blood. A 2002 study of healthy children (ages 4-13) in South Texas showed that 26% had antibodies to the KS virus in their blood.


How did these two viruses of primate origin get into the gay male population to cause AIDS and a contagious form of cancer?

AIDS experts blame monkeys and chimps in the African jungle.

My research indicates it is much more likely these viruses were introduced during government-sponsored hepatitis B experiments using gays as unsuspecting guinea pigs.

Extensive documentation of past "secret medical experiments" by the government can be found on Google.

A recent BBC news report (30 Nov 2004) uncovering unauthorized and dangerous HIV drug experiments on infants and children in New York City orphanages can be found by Googling: BBC + guinea pig kids.

Until proven otherwise, a "new" HIV retrovirus and a "new" KS virus could easily have been developed in a laboratory as part of the Virus Cancer Program.

In the decade before AIDS it was common to transfer and adapt primate retroviruses and herpes viruses into human cells in genetic engineering experiments.

Such viruses were deemed potential "candidate human viruses," as clearly stated in the annual progress reports of the VCP. For further details on the relationship of the VCP to the introduction of HIV, Google: virus cancer program + AIDS.

The connection between the hepatitis experiments and the AIDS epidemic was quickly dismissed by government authorities two decades ago.

However, it is clear from a review of the scientific literature that the "gay plague" began immediately after the government experiments; and the experiments permanently damaged the health of the gay community, and led to continuing spread of HIV into the "general population."

Are we to believe that all this is merely a coincidence — and that AIDS in America resulted simply from two viruses jumping species in the African jungle?

Or is the origin of HIV and AIDS — and the KS virus — related to secret medical research and covert human testing, as suggested here?

* Dr. Alan Cantwell is a retired dermatologist; and the author of five books on the man-made origin of AIDS and the infectious origin of cancer, all published by Aries Rising Press, PO Box 29532, Los Angeles, CA 90029 (


Abstracts of 30 published papers can be found at the PubMed website. Many of his personal writings can be found on by typing in key words "alan cantwell" + articles.

His latest book is Four Women Against Cancer: Bacteria, Cancer and the Origin of Life. His books are available on and through Book Clearing House @ 1-800-431-1579]


Cantwell A. AIDS and the Doctor of Death: An inquiry into the origin of the AIDS epidemic. Aries Rising Press, Los Angeles, 1988.

Cantwell A: Queer Blood: The secret AIDS genocide plot. Aries Rising Press, Los Angeles, 1993.

Miller M.KS enters Y2K still riddled with many questions. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Oct 6;91(19):1612-4.

Szmuness W. Large-scale efficacy trials of hepatitis B vaccines in the USA: baseline data and protocols. J Med Virol. 1979;4(4):327-40.

Szmuness W, Stevens CE, Harley EJ, Zang EA, Oleszko WR, William DC, Sadovsky R, Morrison JM, Kellner. Hepatitis B vaccine: demonstration of efficacy in a controlled clinical trial in a high-risk population in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1980 Oct 9;303(15):833-41.

Szmuness W, Stevens CE, Zang EA, Harley EJ, Kellner A.
A controlled clinical trial of the efficacy of the hepatitis B vaccine (Heptavax B): a final report. Hepatology. 1981 Sep-Oct;1(5):377-85.

Yacovone JA, Weisfeld J. Acceptance of hepatitis B vaccine by Rhode Island dental practitioners. J Am Dent Assoc. 1985 Jul;111(1)5-7.

Spence MR, Dash GP. Hepatitis B: perceptions, knowledge and vaccine acceptance among registered nurses in high-risk occupations in a university hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1990 Mar;11(3):129-33.

O'Brien TR, Kedes D, Ganem D, Macrae DR, Rosenberg PS, Molden J, Goedert JJ. Evidence for concurrent epidemics of human herpesvirus 8 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in US homosexual men: rates, risk factors, and relationship to Kaposi's sarcoma. J Infect Dis. 1999 Oct;180(4):1010-7.

Dollard SC, Nelson KE, Ness PM, Stambolis V, Kuehnert MJ, Pellett PE, Cannon MJ. Possible transmission of human herpesvirus-8 by blood transfusion in a historical United States cohort. Transfusion. 2005 Apr;45(4):463-5.

Sacks HS, Rose DN, Chalmers TC. Should the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome deter hepatitis B vaccination? A decision analysis. JAMA. 1984 Dec 28;252(24):3375-7.

Stevens CE, Taylor PE, Zang EA, Morrison JM, Harley EJ, Rodriguez de Cordoba S, Bacino C, Ting RC, Bodner AJ, Sarngadharan MG, et al. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection in a cohort of homosexual men in New York City. JAMA. 1986 Apr 25;255(16):2167-72.

Stevens CE, Taylor PE, Rubinstein P, Ting RC, Bodner AJ, Sarngadharan MG, Gallo RC. Safety of the hepatitis B vaccine. N Engl J Med. 1985 Feb 7;312(6):375-6.

van Griensven GJ, Hessol NA, Koblin BA, Byers RH, O'Malley PM, Albercht-van Lent N, Buchbinder SP, Taylor PE, Stevens CE, Coutinho RA. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection amonghomosexual men participating in hepatitis B vaccine trials in Amsterdam, New York City, and San Francisco, 1978-1990. Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Apr 15;137(8):909-15.

Biggar RJ, Burnett W, Mikl J, Nasca P. Cancer among New York men at risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Int J Cancer. 1989 Jun 15;43(6):979-85.

Moskowitz LB, Hensley GT, Gould EW, Weiss SD. Frequency and anatomic distribution of lymphadenopathic Kaposi's sarcoma in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: an autopsy series. Hum Pathol. 1985 May;16(5):447-56.

Barahona H, Melendez LV, Hunt RD, Daniel MD. The owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) as an animal model for viral diseases and oncologic studies. Lab Anim Sci. 1976 Dec;26(6 Pt 2):1104-12.

Koblin BA, Hessol NA, Zauber AG, Taylor PE, Buchbinder SP, Katz MH, Stevens CE. Increased incidence of cancer among homosexual men, New York City and San Francisco, 1978-1990. Am J Epidemiol. 1996 Nov 15;144(10):916-23.

Burgi A, Brodine S, Wegner S, Milazzo M, Wallace MR, Spooner K, Blazes DL, Agan BK, Armstrong A, Fraser S, Crum NF. Incidence and risk factors for the occurrence of non-AIDS-defining cancers among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. Cancer. 2005 Oct 1;104(7):1505-11.

Baillargeon J, Deng JH, Hettler E, Harrison C, Grady JJ, Korte LG, Alexander J, Montalvo E, Jenson HB, Gao SJ. Seroprevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection among blood donors from Texas. Ann Epidemiol. 2001 Oct;11(7):512-8.

Baillargeon J, Leach CT, Deng JH, Gao SJ, Jenson HB. High prevalence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection in south Texas children. J Med Virol. 2002 Aug;67(4):542-8.

The Virus Cancer Program: Birthplace of AIDS by ALAN CANTWELL MD
Vaccines: Cure or Another Cause of Disease? by DR. ALAN CANTWELL, MD
Govt Conspiracy, Political Paranoia' & Bill Frist by ALAN CANTWELL, MD
HIV-AIDS: Why Gays Will Not Consider It Man-Made by ALAN CANTWELL MD
Breast Cancer Microbe Research May Yield Cure by ALAN R. CANTWELL, M.D.
Prostate Cancer: Why No Bacteria/Microbe Research? by ALAN CANTWELL, M.D.

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 28 Nëntor 2005 - 23:17:


this is the fifth version i hear about the origin of AIDS and all of them seem havin good bases on what they tell...this version is quite interesting but in order to accept this version we have to search whether there is any other article that speaks whether there have been any case, or at least suspect, of AIDS in the african population during the time of this experiment becouse i have read somewhere that there might have been cases concerning this disease before the time of the experiment...i'll try a search any other article that speaks about the origins of AIDS...there was one,last year on the scientific american magazine (but in italian ) talkin about the AIDS distribution and its probable causes...i hope i find the english version...

p.s:darke just smth : try to split the article when it is too long...sometimes it helps havin more clear the ideas

Postuar nga ~Enigme~ datė 04 Dhjetor 2005 - 19:29:

Research Shows Laser Surgery Effective for Liver Cancer

Cod. A04122005

(The New York Times News Service):November 29, 2005

Long-term research has found that laser surgery using magnetic resonance guidance is effective in treating cancerous liver tumors in some patients, German researchers report.

In this 12-year study, 839 patients at the University of Frankfurt received magnetic resonance-guided, laser-induced thermotherapy for the treatment of liver tumors resulting from colorectal cancer. Under the procedure, laser light is used to destroy tumor tissue.

In the trial, lead researcher Dr. Martin Mack, an associate professor in the university's department of diagnostic and interventional radiology, and his colleagues treated 2,506 liver tumors and tracked patient survival to evaluate the long-term results of the procedure.

Using the laser technology, the average survival rate from the date of diagnosis was 3.8 years, which compared well with survival rates after traditional surgery, which are usually 1.5 to 5.0 years, the researchers reported.

According to Mack, laser ablation has many advantages over other treatments. In addition, laser surgery can be used to treat tumors in both halves of the liver -- often during the same procedure. This is practically impossible in a traditional surgery where only the left or right lobe is surgically excised, the researchers note. Moreover, if new tumors are found during follow-up exams, it is easier to do another laser treatment than to subject the patient to another invasive surgery.

"Many surgeons are already performing local ablation instead of resection, because they have already recognized the positive effect of local ablation," Mack says. "I believe that minimally invasive tumor ablation together with chemotherapy will play the most important role in the treatment of tumors in the years to come."

One expert, however, doesn't think this method is as good as standard surgery for the treatment of liver cancer.

"I would be wary of making too much out of this new technology," says Dr. Charles Cha, an assistant professor of gastrointestinal surgery and surgical oncology at Yale University School of Medicine. "The long-term survival presented by Mack's group is impressive and does demonstrate some promise for this new and experimental technology."

But, Cha notes, "the five-year survival after resection for metastatic colon cancer is around 40 percent, much higher than the 24 percent reported. In addition, there was no surgical arm to compare to, and the conclusion that this technology is better than resection is a bit of a stretch."

The results with either cold (cryotherapy) or heat (radiofrequency ablation) for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer have not yet matched the results of surgery, which remains the gold standard, Cha adds. "Until more definitive evidence is available, patients should not consider this technology as a replacement for standard surgical therapy, but rather as an alternative if surgery is not possible."

Another expert agrees.

"This is the only group that has really done this procedure," says Dr. Ronald W. Busuttil, chief of the division of liver and pancreas transplant at the University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine. "It has not been duplicated." Busuttil says he thought that there are a lot of other methods that can be used to treat liver tumors caused by colorectal cancer that do not include surgery.

"For this technique to really come to the fore, it needs to be compared against surgery and radiofrequency ablation," he says. "It's interesting," Busuttil says, "but I don't know if it's ready for prime time."

Postuar nga ~Enigme~ datė 09 Dhjetor 2005 - 13:49:

Post The Dog Shares Most Genes with Humans

Cod. A09122005

(The New York Times News Service) --
Scientists are publishing Thursday the complete DNA sequence that makes a dog a dog, and it turns out to be uncannily close to what makes a person a person.

Genome sequencers at Harvard University, MIT and their affiliated Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research in Cambridge, Mass., led an international team of scientists through a unique landscape of doggie DNA.

About 2.4 billion chemical units of DNA define a species uniquely shaped by people ever since dogs left the wolf pack and joined our human ancestors at least 15,000 years ago. Accurately mapping the dog genome took about two years and $30 million. Canis familiaris is the latest species to have its genetic code mapped, following that of the rat, mouse, fruit fly and, most famously, the human.

A report on the work appears today in Nature, the British science journal.

Simultaneously, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on Long Island devoted the December issue of its journal "Genome Research," exclusively to canine studies, and produced a book, "The Dog and Its Genome," co-edited by the Whitehead Institute's Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, lead author of the genome study.

Researchers note that dogs share many of the same gene-related health conditions as humans, including cancer and obesity. They have about 19,300 genes, scientists estimate, all but a handful close copies of human genes. Although humans have half a billion more DNA units, or "base pairs," that's mostly because humans are thought to have more silent stretches of so-called junk DNA.

Dogs attract keen research interest in part because of their astounding variety of sizes, physical forms, coat colors and, of course, behavioral traits. If some of these variations can be traced to genes, results may shed light on more subtle variability in other species, including humans.

The task is made more manageable because the same breeding programs that generated the 350 or so modern dog breeds also left precise records of lineages going back many generations. These are tied in some cases to detailed medical records and observations by trainers and owners -- a treasure trove in the era of comparative genomics.

After hundreds of years of selective inbreeding, many of the most prized purebreds have a high risk of genetic maladies.

Discovery of a narcolepsy gene in Dobermans, for instance, helped scientists understand what caused the human form of the sleep disorder.

"The dog is a good model for human disease," Lindblad-Toh said. "They are highly intelligent, social animals, and we interact with them in the same environment."

In veterinary medicine, one of the big tricks now will be to see what disease susceptibilities might be linked genetically to traits that help define a breed.

"There are genes that make a Dalmatian look like a Dalmatian, and that could be very similar to genes that make a disease," said Erika Werne, director of canine research and education at the American Kennel Club Canine Health Foundation in Raleigh, N.C. "If we can see what sort of susceptibility an individual (dog) has, then we may be able to tailor therapies to that individual animal."

The full dog genome sequence was based on DNA samples taken from a female boxer named Tasha, chosen for technical reasons as the best reference breed for widespread use. Ten other breeds were then surveyed for gene variants important as mapping tools, including the dog's great ancestor, the gray wolf, and coyote cousin.

Having all these data in hand may help other researchers sniff out such mysteries as why some dogs, even after extensive training, fail to make the grade as reliable companions for blind and disabled people.

One other canine mystery came nearer to being solved today in a study, also appearing in Nature, on the astounding cornering capacity of greyhounds.

Two researchers in the United Kingdom, James Usherwood and Alan Wilson, used high-speed video to analyze the speed and footfall timings of 40 greyhounds tearing around a track after a mechanical hare. Results showed the dogs derive their power from their hips and back muscles while weight support on banked turns shifts to the forelimbs.

A human track star has to slow down on a sharply banked turn to compensate for rising forces of centripetal acceleration.

Greyhounds can attack a bend full-speed, tilting into a turn like a cyclist, because "the muscles that provide the power are mechanically divorced from the structures that support weight," the scientists found.

"When you watch them run, you're in awe," commented Helen Hamilton, a Fremont veterinarian and longtime greyhound fancier, who likened the dogs to "Ferrari engines on four legs."

Genetically hardwired to run pell-mell, the dogs seem to get despondent if forced to slow down. Still, the speedy gene set comes at the price of shattered bones and torn tendons, Hamilton said, injuries whose incidence jumps dramatically in an environment full of two-legged track hounds laying wagers.

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 15 Dhjetor 2005 - 23:18:

How does someone get two different-colored eyes

Cod. A16122005

How does someone get two different-colored eyes?
question by Jessica,
Mead, Wash.

Susan J. Gross, co-director of the Division of Reproductive Genetics at the Montefiore Medical Center and an associate professor at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, provides this explanation.

Eye color is a manifestation of the pigment that is present in the iris. Brown eyes are rich in melanin deposits, and blue eyes indicate a lack of melanin. The melanocytes of the iris rest in a richly innervated psuedosyncytium, which is necessary to maintain eye color. Two genes control eye color: EYCL3, found on chromosome 15, which codes for brown/blue eye color (BEY), and EYCL1, found on chromosome 19, which codes for green/blue eye color (GEY). Although previously believed to be inherited in simple Mendelian fashion, eye color has proved to be a polygenic trait. Precisely how these genes interact to provide the full constellation of colors, such as hazel and gray, is as yet unknown. Furthermore, other genes may determine the pattern and placement of pigment in the iris, thereby accounting for solid brown as opposed to rays of color.

Heterochromia iridium (two different-colored eyes within a single individual) and heterochromia iridis (a variety of color within a single iris) are relatively rare in humans and result from increased or decreased pigmentation of the iris. Most cases are isolated and sporadic, conceivably resulting from an alteration in the expression of the above-mentioned genes (and those we have yet to find) within the cells of the entire iris or even a particular section. Other potential causes include trauma around the time of birth or later in life, congenital pigmented nevi or even medications such as those used in the treatment of glaucoma. There are a few well-known syndromes of which heterochromia iridis is a striking feature. Waardenburg syndrome type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene, is characterized by pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair and skin, as well as congenital sensorineural hearing loss. But two different eye colors tends to be an isolated finding, which adds to the seemingly endless and fascinating variation in humans' physical characteristics.

Answer posted on November 03, 2001

Postuar nga ~Enigme~ datė 16 Dhjetor 2005 - 01:25:

Post Flu Vaccine Prototype Tests Look Promising

Cod. B16122005

News brought to you by: New York Times on The Web
December 15, 2005

Scientists said Thursday that preliminary tests on a prototype of a pandemic flu vaccine based on the deadly H5N1 strain of bird flu have shown promise. Scientists at Sanofi-Pasteur, the French pharmaceutical company developing the vaccine, said adding another ingredient to the flu shot seemed to boost the potency of lower doses. That would mean that supplies of the key element of the vaccine -- known as the antigen -- could be stretched further, allowing more people to obtain the shots in an emergency.

Since 2003, the deadly bird flu strain has killed at least 69 people in Asia -- most of them farm workers who came into close contact with infected birds.
One of the major challenges in producing a vaccine suitable for a global flu pandemic has been the short supply of antigen. Flu vaccine factories have the capacity to cater to the demands of regular flu seasons, when only a small proportion of the population gets shots. However, many more vaccines would be needed if there were a pandemic.

One solution would be to build more factories or increase the production capacity of existing ones, but that takes time. Another, quicker option is to develop technology that allows the manufacturers to use less antigen per dose of vaccine. Both options are being pursued in preparation for a possible flu pandemic, which experts agree is only a matter of time.

Seasonal flu vaccines, which combine the three most dominant strains, use about 15 micrograms of antigen per strain contained in the shot. Researchers found that the H5N1 bird flu strain -- the one scientists believe is most likely to spawn a potential pandemic -- is so alien to the human body it takes two injections of vaccine using 90 micrograms of antigen apiece to get an adequate response from the human immune system.

In the latest study, an ingredient called alum was added to the vaccine in an attempt to reduce the amount of antigen needed in the shot. Scientists tested the new vaccine on 300 people and found they could get a decent immune response from two injections using only 30 micrograms of antigen each. Provoking an immune system response is not proof the vaccine will protect against infection, but it is the first step. The other major problem -- the need for two shots spread over weeks -- also needs to be addressed.

In addition, it's impossible to perfect a pandemic flu vaccine before the pandemic starts because the vaccine must exactly match the strain, which is unknown until it arrives. However, much of the scientific groundwork, such as perfecting the dose and the amount of antigen needed, can be done using another flu strain.

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 19 Janar 2006 - 22:53:

How Does Sodium Contribute to High Blood Pressure?

Cod. A19012006

In a complex way, increased salt intake causes more fluid to be contained in the blood vessels. This increased volume of blood requires the heart to work harder to pump blood to all the tissues in the body. Increasing the bloods volume within the enclosure of the circulatory system is one way that salt increases blood pressure. Another way salt may help elevate blood pressure is through the action of the arterioles. Arterioles are blood vessels that dilate and constrict to regulate blood pressure and blood flow. By contracting under the influence of sodium, arterioles effectively increase the resistance to blood movement and lessen the volume of blood that is returned to the heart. This action also increases blood pressure. Other mechanisms linking sodium with hypertension are less well understood. The extent to which each person responds to high intake of salt is probably genetically determined. Some people are more susceptible to the effects of sodium than others, and sodium sensitivity appears to increase with age.

Postuar nga NS-6 datė 26 Janar 2006 - 11:18:

why CO is toxic for the human being?

Cod. A26012006

To explain this aspect, we need to explain how the body uses oxygen from the air. Oxygen is transported around the body via the red blood cells. Specifically, oxygen binds to a substance within the red blood cells called haemoglobin, which is also responsible for their red colour.
Haemoglobin takes up oxygen as blood passes through the lungs, and at the same time carbon dioxide, produced by the body's metabolism, is released from the blood into the exhaled breath. The combination of oxygen with haemoglobin is called oxyhaemoglobin and this 'oxygenated' blood is carried away from the lungs through the bloodstream to all the tissues of the body.

Carbon monoxide can also bind to haemoglobin but does so about 240 times more tightly than oxygen, forming a compound called carboxyhaemoglobin. This means that if both carbon monoxide and oxygen are inhaled, carbon monoxide will preferentially bind to haemoglobin. This reduces the amount of haemoglobin available to bind to oxygen, so the body and tissues become starved of oxygen.

Carboxyhaemoglobin also has direct effects on the blood vessels of the body - causing them to become 'leaky'. This is seen especially in the brain, causing the brain to swell, leading to unconsciousness and neurological damage.

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